Monotheistic treatises

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Monotheistic treatises by Mohammad Hossein Tabatabi is in Arabic and consist of four treatises about “Oneness of Divne Essence” (Tawhid Zati), “God’s most Beautiful Names” (asmäe hosnä), “Divne Acts” (afäle God), intermediaries between Him and “world of nature” (älame tabiat). The writing of these treatises, as the author explains in the end of each treatises, has been done in the years of 1937 and 1938A.D. (1356 and 1357A.H.) and its final arrangement, in the year of 1942A.D.(1361A.H.). ####

The brief biography of Author:
Seyyed Mohammad Hossein Tabatabi Tabrizi was born in 1903A.D.(1321A.H./1281solar year). He went to school one year before his father’s death, but after finishing the seventh grade, it is deemed advisable to study at home. For this reason, he and his brother learn the Arab literature under the supervision of a competent literary man by the name of “Sheikh Mohammad Ali Saräi” and also learn the art of calligraphy under the supervision of “Mirza Ali Naghi Khatät. The late Alläme, at the age of 21 in 1924A.D.(1303) married with the daughter of “the late Haj Mirza Mahdi Agha Tabatabi Mahdavi” who was his father’s relative. Aläme, in 1925A.D.(1304 S.H.), after finishing the seminary courses of Tabriz, left for the Holy Najaf along with his wife, brother and newborn son. Acquaintance with Haj Mirza Ali Aghaye Ghazi, had such influence in him, that during 11 years living in “Najaf”, in addition of jurisprudence (fegh), methodology (osool), mathematics, philosophy, Rejal and commentary, had learned the “practical mysticism”(erfän amali) at the presence of this great master and profited from “spiritual journey”(seyr and solook) and “self-purification”(Tazkiyeh Nafs). [REJAL: is a science that studying the biographies of the transmitters of Hadith]. The late Mohammad Hossein Tabatabi”, in the latter part of life, in Najaf, spend his life with difficulty, so that, in the year of 1935A.D.(1314) because of financial problems, left for Iran and dwelled in the “Shäd Äbäd” village of Tabriz. For acquisition of learning, he left for “Qom” and forever bade farewell to Tabriz. He came to “Qom” in 1944A.D.(1325) and thus began his scientific productive life. He lived in this city for about 35 years and did the most services to Islam and theological schools. He started the philosophy lesson with new style. The life of this great scholars who is one of the great glories of Islam and rare researcher, ended and died in the morning of 9 o’clock in “Qom” in 1981/11/15(1360/8/24). Some works that he provided in Tabriz consists of:
1- A treatise on Names and Attributes
2- A treatise on Acts
3- A treatise on intermediaries between God and Man
4- A treatise on before world
5- A treatise in world
6- A treatise on after world
7- A treatise on guardianship
8- A treatise on prophecy
9- Genealogy book of Azarbijan’s Tabatabies.
A brief about Alläme’s services in Qom:
1- Founding a new method of commentary that is completely new and innovative
2- The dissemination of philosophy and intellection thought
3- Efforts in explaining the philosophy subjects and making tangible of many difficult(complex) subjects
4- Try to publish the works of “Household” (p.b.u.th).
5- Coincidence between quranic concepts with whatever have been related in reports of “Household of the messenger” (khändäne resälate)
6- The dissemination of Shiite thought, outside the Islam world.
7- Training and educating scientific and intellectual personages.
8- Valuable publications whether published or unpublished..
9- etc.

The features of book:
One features of this book is that The author with prefect skill in the “rational and transmitted sciences”(oloom aghli and naghli) at first proved and cleared by reasoning the discussed subjects, then with using of more verses and traditions, confirmed the “reasoning based on revealed sources”(dalile Naghli) about that subject. In one chapter is explained the “intellectual proofs”(daläyel aghli) and in the next chapter,the “transmitted proofs”(shavähed naghli), whether it being the verses or traditions. In this way, shows the complete coordination between intellect and revelation. This book has special importance from the both of dimensions. Also in some “proofs” and in using the exact points from “transmitted proofs”(shavähed naghli) are seen the innovation.

The structure and division of book:
The monotheistic treatise, repeatedly has been published by publishers and has been translated by translators such ad Ali Shirvani. This book contains 4 treatises and several chapters as follow:

1- The treatise of Monotheistic: This treatise talk about “real unity of being” (vahdate haghghe wujud) and absoluteness Tawhid of “Divne Essence”, and containing several chapters as follow:
The first chapter: sophist words and philosopher speech.
The second chapter:”real unity of being”(vahdate haghghe wujud).
The third chapter: the purified (nezähat) of “Divine Essence” in all conditions.
The fourth chapter: the “transmitted proofs”(shavähed naghli) on purified of “Necessary Essence” (zäte väjeb) in all conditions.
The fifth chapter: Islam and absoluteness Tawhid (oneness of God)

2- The treatise of “Divine Names”: in this treatise, talk about the Names and Attributes of God that is the same determinations of “Divine Essence” and have several chapters as follow:
The first chapter: the division of “Divine Names”.
The second chapter: the indication of Quran and tradition to whatever passed(in the chapter one).
The third chapter:”station of Oneness”(maghäme ahadiyat and vähediyat) and other determinations.
The fourth chapter: the evidences from Quran and tradition (sonnat)
The fifth chapter:the name that is the origin of other names.
The sixth chapter: “The Greatest Name of God” (esme azam) in the words of “infallible imams (p.b.u.th).

3-The treatise of “Divine Acts”(afäle elähi): this treatise talk about “Divine Acts” and its appurtenance that contains several chapters as follow:
The first chapter:the “real agent”(fäele haghighi) in all actions is God.
The second chapter:the evidences from Holy Quran.
The third chapter:the material world(älame mäde)and the state of “decree and destiny” (ghazä and ghadar)
The fourth chapter: the evidences from traditions.
The fifth chapter:the inherent happiness and “woe”(shaghävat).
The sixth chapter: the evidences from verses and traditions.
The seventh chapter:the negation of predestination(jabr) and entrusting (tafiz) and the coincidence between “free will”(ekhtiyar) and “decree”(taghdir).
The eighth chapter: the evidences from traditions.
The ninth chapter: the way of analyzing other “Divine Acts”.
The tenth chapter: the evidences from Quran and traditions.

4-The treatise of intermediaries: in this treatise talk about the creatures that are the mediator of emanation (feyz) between God and the material world. This treatise contains of several chapters as follow:
The first chapter: “the general worlds of existence” (aväleme koliye wujud).
The second chapter: the evidences from Quran and traditions on mediation of “Divine Names” in “lower stages of existence”(marähel pä’in hasti or tanazole wujud).
The third chapter: obstacles between the Man and God(hojoob), “The Pen” world(älam ghalam), “The Tablet” world(älam löh), etc, and finally, Satan, non-material Satan and finishing the subject.

Sources

1- Monotheistic treatises/Alame Tabatabi- translation by Ali Shirvani Harandi

2- Shiism encyclopedia, vol 10, page 462

3- Shiite commentators groups, vol 1, page 195

4- Proper nouns Persian dictionary

5- Islam glorious people/vol 12, w 272 and 267

6- Alame Tabatabi’s bibliography

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