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Philosophical Conception of the World
Though philosophy conception of the world is not as exact and specific as scientific conception, it is based on a number of principles which are self-evident and undeniable by the mind. These principles proceed logically and are general and comprehensive. As such they have the advantage of being firm and constant. Philosophy conception of the world is free from that inconstancy and limitations which are found in scientific conception. Philosophy conception of the world answers all questions on which the ideologies depend. It identifies the overall shape and features of the world.
2/1) The way of interfering the scientific and philosophical philosophy in human actions
Both the scientific and philosophical conceptions are a prelude to action, but in two different ways. Scientific conception is a prelude to action because it enables man to control nature and introduce changes in it. Man by means of science can use nature to his advantage as he wishes. Philosophical conception is a prelude to action in the sense that it determines man’s choice his way of life. It effects his reaction to his encounter with the world. It fixes his attitude and gives him a particular outlook on the world and the creation. It either gives an ideal to man or takes away an ideal from him. It either gives meaning to his life or draws him to absurdity and nothingness. That is why we say that science cannot give man a world conception that may become the basis of an ideology, but philosophy can.
3)Religious Conception of the World
If we regard every expression of an overall of the world and the creation as a philosophy conception, not taking into consideration whether the source of this conception is a guess or reasoning or a revelation from the unknown world, religious and philosophy conception belong to the same domain. But if we take their source into account, philosophical and religious conceptions of the world are undoubtedly two different things.
In certain religions like Islam, religions conception of the world, has take a philosophical or argumentative colour and is an integral part of the religions itself. The questions raised by religions are based on reasoning and proof. Thus an Islamic conception of the world is rational and philosophical.
Besides the two merits of philosophical conception, namely eternity and comprehensives, religious conception of the world unlike scientific and purely philosophical conceptions, possesses one more merit of sanctification of the principles of world conceptions.
If we keep in view that an ideology, besides requiring faith in the eternity and inviolability of the principles held sacred by it requires a belief in and adherence to a school of thought, it becomes clear that its basis can be only that conception of the world which has a religious colour.
From the foregoing discussion it may be inferred that a conception of the world can be the basis of an ideology only if it possesses stability, philosophical broad thinking and the sanctity of religious principles.
4)How to Judge an Ideology?
A perfect ideology is that which: (i) Can be proved and expressed in a logical from, in other words, is logically and intellectually tenable, (ii) Gives meaning to life and removes nihilistic ideas from the mind.(iii) Is inspiring, (iv) Is capable of giving sanctity to the human and social goals, and, (v) Makes accountable.
If an ideology is logically tenable, the way is paved for its being accepted intellectually and there being no ambiguity about it, action as suggested by it becomes easy. An inspiring ideology makes its school attractive and gives it warmth and power.
The sanctification of the goals of a school by its ideology, makes it easy for the adherents of this school to make sacrifice for its cause. If a school does not declare its goals to be sacred, it cannot create a sense of adoration and sacrifice in regard to its principle, nor can there be any guarantee of the success of such a school.
The accountability of man declared by a conception of the world, commits the individual to the depth of his conscience and makes him responsible to himself and to society.
5)Monotheistic conception of the world
All these qualities and characteristics which are an essential requirement of a good conception of the world are found in monotheistic conception. It is the only conception which has all these characteristics. Monotheistic conception means the realization of the fact that the world has come out of a wise will and that its system is founded on mercy, munificence and all that is good. It aims at leading the existing things to a perfection befitting them. Monotheistic conception means that the world is “mono-axis” and “mono-orbit”, It means that the world is “from Allah” and returns “to Allah”.
All the existing things of the world are harmonious and their evolution proceeds towards the same centre. Nothing has been created in vain and without having a purpose. The world is being managed under a series of definite systems known as “Divine law”. Among the existing thing man enjoys a special dignity, and has a special duty and a special mission. He is responsible for his own promotion and perfection as well as the reform of his society. The world is a school, and Allah rewards everyone according to his intention and valid effort.
Monotheistic conception of the world is supported by logic, science and sound arguments. Every particle of the world is a sign of the existence of an All-Wise and All-Knowing Allah and every leaf a tree is a book of spiritual knowledge.
Monotheistic conception of the world gives to life a meaning, a spirit and a goal. It puts man on a way to perfection on which he conception to march forward without stopping any stage.
Monotheistic conception of the world has special attraction. It gives vitality and vigour to man. It puts forward lofty and sacred goals and produces selfless individuals.
Monotheistic conception of the world is the only conception of it which gives meaning to the responsibility of people to each other. Similarly it is the only conception that saves man from falling into the abyss of absurdity.
6)Islam Conception of the World
Islamic conception of the world is monotheistic. Islam has presented monotheism in its purest form. From Islamic point of view Allah has no like of Him and nothing can be compared to Him: There is nothing like him. (Surah ash-Shura ,42:11) (لیس کمثله شی ء 11: 42).
Allah is absolutely independent. All depend on Him, but He depends on none: You are in need of Allah. And Allah! He is Absolute, Lauduable, (Surah al- Fatir, 35: 15) (انتم الفقراء الی الله و الله هو الغنی الحمید 15: 35) Allah is aware of everything. He can do whatever He likes: He is fully aware of everything. (Surah ash Shura, 42: 12) (انه بکل شی ء علیم 12: 42). He is able to do all things. (Surah al- Hjj,22:6) (انه علی کل شی ء قدیر 6: 22 ). Allah is everywhere. Every place, whether it is above the sky or in the depth of the earth has the same relation to Him. To whatever direction we stand, we face Him. Wherever you turn, there is Allah’s countenance. (Surah al-Baqarah, 2:115) (فا ینما تولوافثم وجه الله 115: 2 ).
Allah knows what is in hearts of people. He is aware of their intentions and aims. Indeed We have created man and We know what his soul whispers. (Surah Qaf,50: 16) (و لقد خلقنا الانسان و نعلم ما توسوس به نفسه 16: 50).
Allah is closer to man than his jugular vein: We are nearer to him than his jugular vein. (Surah Qaf,50: 16) (و نحن اقرب الیه من حبل الورید 16: 50).
Allah has all the good attributes and is free from every defect: Allah’s are the fairest names. (Surah al- A’raf, 7:180) (ولله الا شماء الحسنی 180: 7).
Allah is not material organism and cannot be seen with eves: Vision does not comprehend Him, but He comprehends all vision. (Surah al- An’am,6:103) (لاتدرکه الابصار و هو یدرک الابصار 103: 6).
6/1)picture of the world from the viewpoint of Islamic monotheistic world conception
From the stand point of monotheistic and Islamic conception of the world, the universes is a creation and is looked after by Divine will and attention. If Divine attention were withheld for a moment, the whole universes would be annihilated in no time.
This world has not been created in vain or in jest. There are many advantages implied in the creation of man and the world. Nothing has been created unbecoming and futile. The existing system of the universes is the best and the most perfect. It manifests justice and truth and is based on a sequence of causes and effects. Every result is a logical consequence of a cause and every cause produces a specific effect. Divine destiny brings a thing into existence through its specific causes only, and it is a chain of causes which constitutes the Divine destiny of a thing.
Divine will always operates in the world in the form of a law or a general principle. Divine laws do not change. Whatever changes take place, they always in accordance with some law. Good and evil in the world are related to man’s own conduct and his own deeds. Good deeds and bad deeds, besides being recompensed in the next world, have their reaction in this world also. Gradual evolution is a Divine law. This world is a nursery for the development of man.
Divine destiny is supreme in the whole world. Man has been destined by it to be free and responsible. He is the master of his own destiny. Man has his special dignity. He is fit to be the vicegerent of Allah. This world and the Hereafter are but two interconnected stages like those of sowing and harvest, for one reaps what one sows. They may also be compared to the two periods of childhood and old age, for the latter period is the outcome of the former.
Man and Universe- part Monotheistic conception of the world - pages: 54to58
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