Sheikh Muhammad Hasan Najafi (Saheb Jawaher)

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Sheikh Muhammad Hasan Najafi, known as “Saheb Jawaher” [the author of the prominent book “Jawaher al-Kalam” (The jewel of speech) ]. He may was born in 1785 or 1787 and originally was Arabic. He was the founder of true jurisprudence in the 19th century. He was student of “Sheikh Akbar Kashef al-Qata”. Najafi had a great Hawzeh (religious school) in Najaf and many students were educated in the presence of him. He completed the new scientific movement which its base was established by “Allameh Vahid Behbahani” in Karbala – Iraq. The 19th #### century was one of the most prolific centuries in the Islamic world. Celebrated jurisconsults appeared such as: Sheikh Muhammad Hasan Najafi (in jurisprudence) and Sheikh Murteza Ansari (in jurisprudence & methodology). In time of AyatollahNajaf Hawzeh” had a good economical, social and political condition. Ayatollah Njafi trained many students; “Sheikh Zeyn al-Abedin Mazandarani” was one of his greatest students. There were also literary activities ; the followin are the poets who appeared durin this period of time: The House of Ale A’am, the House of Muhye Din, Seyyed Heidar Ali, Sheikh Mohsen Khezri, Seyyed Jafar Helli, Bahrul Olum and others. Ayatollah Najafi’s great work is the book “Jawaher al-Kalam” (The jewel of speech), which is a great encyclopedia on jurisprudence. He died in 1849.



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