Mullah Muhammad Kazem Khorasani

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Mullah Muhammad Kazem Khorasani, great philosopher was born in 1830 into an unknown family in Mashhad. At the age of 22, emigrated to Tehran and studied philosophy for a ashort time and then travelled to Najaf and studied 2 years in the presence of " sheikh Ansari" but he studied more in the presence of "Mirza Shirazi" (great scholar). In 1874, Mirza Shirazi was resident in Samerra –Iraq, but Khorasani himself established a school in Najaf and trained some 1200 students which 200 of them were jurisconuslts; he was a #### successful master. Contemporary jurisconsult such as: the late Seyyed Aubl Hasan Isfahani, the late sheikh Muhammad Hossei Isfahani, the late Hossein Boroujerdi, the laye Hosssein Qomi and the late Zia al –Din Iraqi, all were his students. Khorasani is more famous for methodology (Osul). His ideas are always are considered and taught in Hawzeh (religious schools). His famous work "Kefayatul Osul" (sufficiency of methodology) is an important text-book which have been written many glosses on it.

1- Ejtehad (exegesis of divine law by theology and law) and Taqlid (following a religious leader)
2- Gloss on "Asfar" (written by mullah Sadra)
3- Gloss on "Rasael" (written by sheikh Murteza Ansari)
4- judgement and evidence
5- Kefayatul Ousl (sufficiency of methodology) 2 volumes
6- Gloss on "Makaseb" (written by sheikh Murteza Ansari), etc.

Khorasani had also political activities. He pronounced fatwa on constitution of Iran (publicly pronounced that constitution is absolutely necessary). Constitution of Iran is indebted to him. Khorasani and sheikh Abdullah Mazandarani and sime other scholars in Najaf agreed with constitution of Iran, they believed that it was a path towards justice. They also pronounced fatwa on dethroning "Muhammad Ali shah" (king of Qajar dynasty) in order to consolidate Islamic government and unnity among people. Khorasani also fought against humanism and irreligiousness in Iran. He died in 1910.



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