The Five Treatises

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The book “The five treatises” is one of the works of the significant Iranian philosopher and scholar Avicenna including his five treatises.

 

The author

Avicenna, one of the greatest Muslim scientists and philosophers, known in the East as Abu Ali Sina and also Ibn Sina (980 – 1037).
He was born near Bukhara, probably with Persian as his native language.
At the age of eighteen he had mastered all the then known sciences. After the death of his father, an official of the Samanid adminstration, and the overthrow of the Samanids by the Ilekhans in 1005, he first wandered through Persia and then, from 1021 until shortly before his death, he lived at Isfahan as court physician of the Buyid rulers Shams al-Dawla and Sama al-Dawla, who by then had come under Kakuid suzerainty.

He is known primarily as a philosopher and physician, Avicenna contributed also to all the sciences that were accessible in his day: natural history, physics, chemistry, astronomy, mathematics and music. He studied mathematics under “Abu Abdullah Natli”, then continued metaphysics, physics and medicine in the presence of “Abu Soheyl Masihi”.
 He wrote on economics, politics, moral and religious questions, Quranic exegesis and poetry.
In 1654, 131 authentic and 110 doubtful works were listed in his bibliography.
The following are his most famous works:

1-    Book of Healing ‘of the soul’ (a vast philosophical and scientific encyclopeida)
2-    The Canon of Medicine (one of the most famous books in the history of medicine)
3-    The Tale of Hayy Ibn Yaqzan (a philosophical allegory)

Avicenna’s influence on medieval European philosophers such as Michael Scot,  Albertus Magnus,  Rager Bacon,  Duns Scotus and Thomas Aquinas is undeniable.

He died as the result of colic, in Hamedan – Iran where a monument was erected to celebrate the millennium of his birth.

 

The book structure

The book includes five treatises of Avicenna as follows:

1- Treatise on word:

This treatise is written in Arabic selected from his another work “Lesan al- Arab” (Arabic language).

This treatise includes: Fate and destiny, on the prophets companions, on Muhajerin (the Emigrants) and Ansar (the companions), worship, prayer, religions, etc.

2-commentary of the surahs:

Dawn ( Falaq) , sincerity (tawhid) and Mankind (Nas),

(1) Exegesis of the surah “sincerity” (112): say: God is Unique! (1)God is Source of everything 12)- he has not fathered anyone nor was he fathered(3) –and there is nothing comparable to him (4)

(2) Exegesis of the surah “ Dawn” (113): say: I tak refuge with the Lord of Dawn (1) –from the mischief of  whatever he has created (2) –and from the evil of dusk as it settles down (3) –and from the mischief of women spiting on knots (4) – and from the evil of some envier when he envies(5)

(3) Exegesis of the surah “Mankind” (114):

Say: I take refuge with the Lord of Mankind (1) –the king of Mankind (2) –the God of Mankind(3)  -from the evil of the stealthy whisperer (4) – who whispers in the breasts of Mankind (5) – whether among sprites of Mankind (6)

3- Baz'al-  Afazel (some scholars)

Sources

The Five Treatises (Avicenna)

Keywords


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