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This book is written by Ayatollah sobhani, concerning explanation of the culture of Islamic religions and beliefs.
Ayatollah Jafar sobhani Tabrizi ,contemporary Iranian scholar. Born in 1930, in Tabriz into a religious family. He studied in Persian literature, the books “ Nasaab al- sebyan” , Abwab al- Jenan “ (the doors of paradise) , “ Mo jam History” in the presence of “ Mirza Mahmud Fazel”. Then he continued his studies in “ Tableiyeh school” in Tabriz he was trained into presence of great scholars : Ayatollah Ruhallah khomenini, sheikh Hasan Nahwi and Mirza Muhammad Ali Modems khiyabani Ayatollah sobhani is the founder of “ the center of Islamic theological studies” and also one of the great teachers in “ Qom seminary.
1- Theological books and Mujam al- Mutakallemin
3- The eternal light
4- wahhabism. etc.
The book structure
The book is composed in 5 chapters which in each the author mentions the views and beliefs of the Islamic sect by referring to their most certified sources:
1- 2 the beliefs of “traditionists” (those who concern Prophetic Hadiths), “Habalites” (the followers of the Sunni school of theology, law and morality which grew up from the teaching of Ahmad Ibn Hanbal. Hanbalism recognizes no other sources han the Koran and the sunna of the Prophet) and “Ashatiyya” (the school of orthodox theology founded by al- Ashari .
It was attacked by the Hanbalites for their use of rational arguments and by the Maturidiyya for being too conservative)
3- The beliefs of “Ibn Taymiyya” (Hanbali theologian and juiscousult from Horran, 1263-1328. Persecuted and imprisoned for his convictions, he aimed to integrate and harmonize tradition, reason and free-will in a solidly constructed doctrine which might be defined as a conservative reformism) and “ Ibn Abd al- wahhab” (Hanbdi theologian from Najd and the founder of Wahhabism , 1703-1792.
Already as a young theologian, al-wahhab began his teaching against the cult of saints, paganism among the Bedouins, sacred trees and some sacred tombs)
4- The beliefs of “Maturidiyya” (the doctrinal school of Sunni theology, funded by Hanafi theologian of Maturid in Samarqand. Jueist and the Koran commentator, ca (837-ca.944) and “Matazila” (name of a religious movement founded at Basra by Wasil Ibn Ata, subsequently becoming one of the most important theological school of Islam)
5- The sect “Kharijites” (“khawarrej” the Arabic term indicates the dissents who, at the Battle of siffin in 657, refused arbitration between Ali and Maawiya and departed)
The book was published in 1944 in Qom Islamic desk reference.
The culture of Islamic religions and beliefs
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